Here are links to the gear I use for my podcast.
Essentially: I keep a really tight pack of gear. I wanted something that can fit in a bag so I can travel anywhere. I've seen a ton of setups and I honestly think I found the sweet spot with this.
RECORDER: Zoom H6N
This is the most portable recorder and allows you to record up to 5 people. You can also get a Zoom H5N or a Zoom H4N, however those only allow one guest at a time. I have friends that have a shit ton of gear, but H6N allows you to have all your recording needs in one box. You can use this in a studio setting, or on the road. And I love the dial settings with digital readout. ANYONE can figure this thing out in 5 minutes.
MICS: SM58 (or SM7B)
I mostly use stage mics (SM58b) when I travel. They're the cheapest and have great quality. I also like that they are handheld. I have 2 and they work great.
I also have a SM7B that I use for "studio." The quality is much better but then you may want to have a studio or you'll be forced to carry stands to sessions. These are the same mics used by Joe Rogan, Marc Maron, and others. They cost 4x as much and are really there if you're serious about audio.
MEMORY CARD (16gig SanDisk)
16 gig is enough to last for 18-24 hours of recording.
CABLES (6-10 feet)
I have 6' cables and they work dine. I had 20' cables and it was WAAAAAYYYY too much. I wouldn't go more than 10 feet.
I use Adobe Audition. I pay $50 per month for Adobe Creative Suite (Including Audition, Premier, Photoshop, and other programs I use daily)
Others use Garage Band.
I'd go to Guitar Center and find one that fits your needs. I rarely use them anymore tbh. You can get some that stand freely, or others that attach to your table/desk.
(As a heads up, buying from these links supports the podcast! I receive a small percentage of the sales from Amazon!)